Culture of Banyumas District

In the context of the development of Javanese culture, Banyumas is often regarded as a marginal area (Koentjaraningrat, 1984) which connotes roughly, is left behind and is no more civilized than the developed culture of the negarigung region (the center of the court's power) imbued with the concept of the noble.

Culture of Banyumas or often also called "Banyumasan" culture present as folk culture that developed among the common people far from the hegemony of the life of the palace. The suffix "an" in the word "Banyumas" indicates locality or specificity, as in "Semarangan", "Jawa Timuran", "Surabayan", "Magelangan" and others. Rene TA Lysloff argues that the use of "an" endings in such words with regard to views tends to be understated traditionally and relates to "style" issues. This shows that Banyumasan culture is a local element within a larger scope; Javanese culture.

Indeed, Banyumas culture is in principle an integral part of Javanese culture. However, due to the geographical condition and location which is far from the center of the palace and the background of life and life of Banyumas people who are imbued with popular spirit, resulting in various sides of Banyumas culture can be distinguished from the parent culture. The soul and spirit of Banyumas culture have brought it to the appearance that-when viewed from the standpoint of the court-impressed-rustic culture. Such facts led to the culture of Banyumas often sub-cultured, considered less meaningful for the growth and development of Javanese culture as a whole.

Banyumas culture is formed from a combination of elements of old Javanese culture with the pattern of life of the local community. In its journey Banyumas culture is influenced by new Javanese culture, Sundanese culture, Islamic culture, and Western culture. The elements of old Javanese culture (Old and Middle Java) influenced the Indian culture (Hindu-Buddhist) which has long been spread by a priest named Aji Saka. This culture grows in villages, hamlets or dukuh-dukuh, as a form of local genious and become an integral part of the life of the community "wong cilik."

Banyumas culture takes place in a pattern of simplicity, based on the spirit of populism, cablaka (transparency), exposure and built from a society that is patterned traditional life-agrarian. This tendency is mainly due to the fact that Banyumas is a suburb of the great empires of old. The development of culture in this area generally takes place more slowly than the culture that lives in the palace environment as the center of the king's power.

The content of elements of old Javanese culture in Banyumas culture is mainly reflected in the language and belief system. In the area of ​​Banyumas cultural distribution in addition to developing standard Java language-often referred to as the term bandhek-also develops Banyumas dialect or Banyumas. For people in this area, Banyumasan language is the mother tongue that comes as a means of daily communication. Banyumasan language is believed to be a relic of the old Javanese (Old Javanese and Tengahan) which can still be found today. Thus Banyumasan language can be used to peep the growth of old Java language that developed before the birth of new Java language.

Banyumasan language has specifications and / or special features that can be distinguished by the new Javanese language (standard). Some of these special features include: (1) growing locally only in the area of ​​Banyumas cultural distribution; (2) has an innocent and open character; (3) there are not many upload-upload gradations; (4) is used as a mother tongue by most Banyumas people; (5) was influenced by the ancient Javanese, Middle Java, and Sundanese languages; (6) the pronunciation of the consonant at the end of the word is read clearly (hereafter often referred to as ngapak-ngapak), and (7) the vowel pronunciations a, i, u, e, o are read clearly. In the wider social arena, such features have become one of the markers that can easily be recognized by other groups of people.

The influence of Indian (Hindu-Buddhist) culture on Banyumas culture can be seen from historical artefacts and Banyumas people's belief system which is close to belief system in both religions. In this area found many historical artifacts such as phallus, yoni, prehistoric statues and other objects that are relics of the spread of Hindu culture. In the region of Banyumas also believed there is a duchy that developed in pre-Islamic era, namely Duchy Pasirluhur. This proves that Banyumas once became one of the strong bases for the spread of Hinduism.

In terms of belief systems, Hindu-Buddhist influences are reflected in the strong beliefs of animism, dynamism, totemism, gods and supernatural powers coming from nature and ancestral spirits. In this area there are various rituals performed on a regular basis that are calculated based on the Javanese calendar as well as the prey of prey. For example: the ritual of earth and Suran in the month of Sura, the heirloom consecration in each month of Mulud, Sadranan and the uploads in the month of Sadran, udhun-udhunan in the month of Shawwal and the tunnels, idols and barits performed every Kapat and Fifth prey. This kind of ritual activity is still carried out by the people of Banyumas until now.

Until the early decades of the 1990s there were still many ritual activities conducted by the Banyumas community on every night of birth by burning incense or incense as well as some offerings such as flower telon (flower three kinds) and red and white porridge intended for old sedulur- sedulur nom (old brother and younger brother). On the other hand, Buddhist legacy can still be seen in the extent of the spread of Buddhism in the mountains of Kendheng, which is the mountain that divides Banyumas cultural distribution area, stretching from west to east.

The spread of Islam in Banyumas has had a strong influence on the cultural growth of the region. Islam began to spread in the region of Banyumas lasted since the era of Demak, that is when the region is under the rule of the Duchy of Sand. The bearer of the teachings of Islam is Makdum Wali, who managed to Islamize the Duke of Many Blanak, the ruler of Sand. In fact, Duke Many Blanak later contributed to Islamize various areas, including Banyumas, West Java and Ponorogo and surrounding areas. For his role, King Demak gives some gifts to Duke Many Blanak, among others: (1) Duchy of Sand sustainably become a territory of fief (not obliged to set pisungsung / tax to Demak); (2) Kadipaten Pasir given the territory starting from Tugu Mangangkang (Sindoro-Sumbing mountain slope) to Udhug-udhug Karawang; and (3) Duke of Many Blanak was appointed as Kanjeng Duke of Mangku Bumi. Since then the Islamic religion replaces the position of religions that developed earlier (Hindu-Buddhist) as a religion that is embraced by most of the people of Banyumas.

The spread of Islam in Banyumas does not necessarily eliminate the long-standing beliefs in people's lives in the region. Islam developed in this region is Abangan Islam which still provides an opportunity for the development of animism-dynamism belief for its adherents. Understanding of deity applies the habit of "culture of framing religion". Cultural aspects play a more dominant role in social life, caressing and framing the teachings of Islam. Understanding of the divine is framed in local cultural nuances as can be found in art variety, traditional expressions, folklore, traditional beliefs and others. This is different from coastal culture (north) which is more inclined to develop puritanical Islam in the form of "religion of cultural framing".

The development of Banyumas culture is not merely in the administrative area of ​​Banyumas Regency. In the north bordering the northern coastal culture, to the south reaches the left-handed coast, on the east side bordering Kedu culture, and on the western side bordering Sundanese culture. The existence of Banyumas culture is very specific and distinctive, marking the existence of a small society among the cultural hegemony of the palace that developed in the centers of the Javanese kingdom.

The geographical location of Banyumas located in the border area of ​​Javanese and Sundanese culture has given a strong influence on the growth of Banyumas culture. Both of these cultures have a thick acculturation that leads to the formation of its own cultural diversity that is different from Javanese culture and Sundanese culture which in fact is the parent culture. In many aspects it can be seen clearly the mixing of the two poles of culture in Banyumas culture. A concrete example is the myth of two ancestors so powerful in the Banyumas community. They believe that Banyumas ancestors were a mixture between Majapahit and Pajajaran. Raden Baribin, one of Brawijaya IV's younger siblings, was married to one of Pajajaran's daughters. Both are then blessed with a descendant named Raden Joko Kahiman who became Duke of Banyumas first titled Duke of the Main Citizens II (Duke of Mrapat). Such facts illustrate how even from the historical side can be seen the strong mix of Java-Sunda in the realm of Banyumas culture.

In social life, the people of Banyumas are very familiar with folklore which is strongly influenced by the beliefs of animism-the dynamism and development of abangan Islam. The belief in superstition, the supernatural powers surrounding human life and belief in divinity illustrate the mixing of the animism-dinamic belief system with the teachings of Abangan Islam. Concrete examples can be found in traditional mantras. A person walking exactly at midday in places deemed haunted (inhabited by supernatural beings) will utter a traditional-Islami mantra "Millah bedhug" or say "Bismillah, kyaine, putune ajeng liwat". In the world of childhood is also often found this kind of mantra.

The model of these spells is done for serious and playful things. Speech, "Millah bedhug" or "Bismillah, Kyaine, his late son" is an example of something that is considered serious. This local community believes that in certain places is inhabited by a delicate spirit, whether good or evil. Their prudence is shown through these kind of spell phrases. In the context of play, the spell pronounced by the dragon-catching children illustrates how deeply they are in belief or suggestion, that by speaking the spell then dragonflies will be benign. On the other hand, in order for the dragonfly to be tame, the spell is countered with another spell, rolling, rolling, throwing your thief (pushing, pushing, behind your thief).

In the context of art, the local genius of the Banyumas community has produced a wide variety of traditional artistic breathing breaths such as lengger, bongkel, jemblung, calung, angklung and others. This variety of art is built from people's culture. They have a different standard of aesthetics with the various art forms of kraton imbued with the grand concept. The artistry in the context of Banyumas culture is a means of expressing the totality of the experience of the community living in rural communities, far from the royal hegemony, traditional-agrarian cultures and social sensitivities that reflect the movements of their daily lives.

On the other hand, the life of Banyumas culture is strongly influenced by oral tradition. As areas that are relatively left behind in cultural developments in the past, writing cultures in this region are relatively slower than the royal centers. Scan of all these has sparked oral tradition as one of the most important part of their lives. People in this area have the techniques to remember the important events in Banyumas society. An illiterate citizen in Banyumas can tell clearly about Banyumas history, Pasirluhur babad or Banyumas Flood events. Likewise, people in this area have a way of remembering the day, the market and the date of the year in the year only with a finger count.

Banyumas culture is also influenced by Western culture (colonial) as reflected in the various traditions of society. Marungan tradition in the form of customs of the priyayi in rural areas to do (bersukaria) by drinking (drinking) while playing cards and watching the folk dance performances lengger, allegedly the influence of Dutch colonialism that so long controlled Indonesia. Performing a pethilan (piece) performance of the play is believed to be derived from the term toneel in a Dutch vocabulary. Similarly, the costumes worn on the art of dhames and nods are also the influence of the costumes worn by Dutch colonial soldiers. On the other hand, colonial influence is also found in building models.

In the context of the development of Javanese culture, Banyumas is often regarded as a marginal area (Koentjaraningrat, 1984) which connotes roughly, is left behind and is no more civilized than the developed culture of the negarigung region (the center of the court's power) imbued with the concept of the noble. Culture of Banyumas or often also called Banyumasan culture present as folk culture that developed among the common people far from the hegemony of the life of the palace. The suffix "an" in the word "Banyumas" indicates locality or specificity, as in "Semarangan", "Jawa Timuran", "Surabayan", "Magelangan" and others. Rene TA Lysloff argues that the use of "an" endings in such words with regard to views tends to be understated traditionally and relates to "style" issues. This shows that Banyumasan culture is a local element within a larger scope; Javanese culture.
Indeed, Banyumas culture is in principle an integral part of Javanese culture. However, due to the geographical condition and location which is far from the center of the palace and the background of life and life of Banyumas people who are imbued with popular spirit, resulting in various sides of Banyumas culture can be distinguished from the parent culture. The soul and spirit of Banyumas culture have brought it to the appearance that-when viewed from the standpoint of the court-impressed-rustic culture. Such facts led to the culture of Banyumas often sub-cultured, considered less meaningful for the growth and development of Javanese culture as a whole.

Banyumas culture is formed from a combination of elements of old Javanese culture with the pattern of life of the local community. In its journey Banyumas culture is influenced by new Javanese culture, Sundanese culture, Islamic culture, and Western culture. The elements of old Javanese culture (Old and Middle Java) influenced the Indian culture (Hindu-Buddhist) which has long been spread by a priest named Aji Saka. Khasanah this culture grows in villages, hamlets or dukuh-dukuh, as a form of local genious and become an integral part of the life of the community wong cilik.

Banyumas culture takes place in a pattern of simplicity, based on the spirit of populism, cablaka (transparency), exposure (open) and built from a society that is patterned traditional life-agrarian. This tendency is mainly due to the fact that Banyumas is a suburb of the great empires of old. The development of culture in this area generally takes place more slowly than the culture that lives in the palace environment as the center of the king's power.

The content of elements of old Javanese culture in Banyumas culture is mainly reflected in the language and belief system. In the area of ​​Banyumas cultural distribution in addition to developing standard Java language-often referred to as the term bandhek-also develops Banyumas dialect or Banyumas. For people in this area, Banyumasan language is the mother tongue that comes as a means of daily communication. Banyumasan language is believed to be a relic of the old Javanese (Old Javanese and Tengahan) which can still be found today. Thus Banyumasan language can be used to peep the growth of old Java language that developed before the birth of new Java language.

Banyumasan language has specifications and / or special features that can be distinguished by the new Javanese language (standard). Some of these special features include: (1) growing locally only in the area of ​​Banyumas cultural distribution; (2) has an innocent and open character; (3) there are not many upload-upload gradations; (4) is used as a mother tongue by most Banyumas people; (5) was influenced by the ancient Javanese, Middle Java, and Sundanese languages; (6) the pronunciation of the consonant at the end of the word is read clearly (hereafter often referred to as ngapak-ngapak), and (7) the vowel pronunciations a, i, u, e, o are read clearly. In the wider social arena, such features have become one of the markers that can easily be recognized by other groups of people.

The influence of Indian (Hindu-Buddhist) culture on Banyumas culture can be seen from historical artefacts and Banyumas people's belief system which is close to belief system in both religions. In this area found many historical artifacts such as phallus, yoni, prehistoric statues and other objects that are relics of the spread of Hindu culture. In the region of Banyumas also believed there is a duchy that developed in pre-Islamic era, namely Duchy Pasirluhur. This proves that Banyumas once became one of the strong bases for the spread of Hinduism.

In terms of belief systems, Hindu-Buddhist influences are reflected in the strong beliefs of animism, dynamism, totemism, gods and supernatural powers coming from nature and ancestral spirits. In this area there are various rituals performed on a regular basis that are calculated based on the Javanese calendar as well as the prey of prey. For example: the ritual of earth and Suran in the month of Sura, the heirloom consecration in each month of Mulud, Sadranan and the uploads in the month of Sadran, udhun-udhunan in the month of Shawwal and the tunnels, idols and barits performed every Kapat and Fifth prey. This kind of ritual activity is still carried out by the people of Banyumas until now.

Until the early decades of the 1990s there were still many ritual activities conducted by the Banyumas community on every night of birth by burning incense or incense as well as some offerings such as flower telon (flower three kinds) and red and white porridge intended for old sedulur- sedulur nom (old brother and younger brother). On the other hand, Buddhist legacy can still be seen in the extent of the spread of Buddhism in the mountains of Kendheng, which is the mountain that divides Banyumas cultural distribution area, stretching from west to east.

The spread of Islam in Banyumas has had a strong influence on the cultural growth of the region. Islam began to spread in the region of Banyumas lasted since the era of Demak, that is when the region is under the rule of the Duchy of Sand. The bearer of the teachings of Islam is Makdum Wali, who managed to Islamize the Duke of Many Blanak, the ruler of Sand. In fact, Duke Many Blanak later contributed to Islamize various areas, including Banyumas, West Java and Ponorogo and surrounding areas. For his role, King Demak gives some gifts to Duke Many Blanak, among others: (1) Duchy of Sand sustainably become a territory of fief (not obliged to set pisungsung / tax to Demak); (2) Kadipaten Pasir given the territory starting from Tugu Mangangkang (Sindoro-Sumbing mountain slope) to Udhug-udhug Karawang; and (3) Duke of Many Blanak was appointed as Kanjeng Duke of Mangku Bumi. Since then the Islamic religion replaces the position of religions that developed earlier (Hindu-Buddhist) as a religion that is embraced by most of the people of Banyumas.

The spread of Islam in Banyumas does not necessarily eliminate the long-standing beliefs in people's lives in the region. Islam developed in this region is Abangan Islam which still provides an opportunity for the development of animism-dynamism belief for its adherents. Understanding of deity applies the habit of "culture of framing religion". Cultural aspects play a more dominant role in social life, caressing and framing the teachings of Islam. Understanding of the divine is framed in local cultural nuances as can be found in art variety, traditional expressions, folklore, traditional beliefs and others. This is different from coastal culture (north) which is more inclined to develop puritanical Islam in the form of "religion of cultural framing".

The development of Banyumas culture is not merely in the administrative area of ​​Banyumas Regency. In the north bordering the northern coastal culture, to the south reaches the left-handed coast, on the east side bordering Kedu culture, and on the western side bordering Sundanese culture. The existence of Banyumas culture is very specific and distinctive, marking the existence of a small society among the cultural hegemony of the palace that developed in the centers of the Javanese kingdom.

The geographical location of Banyumas located in the border area of ​​Javanese and Sundanese culture has given a strong influence on the growth of Banyumas culture. Both of these cultures have a thick acculturation that leads to the formation of its own cultural diversity that is different from Javanese culture and Sundanese culture which in fact is the parent culture. In many aspects it can be seen clearly the mixing of the two poles of culture in Banyumas culture. A concrete example is the myth of two ancestors so powerful in the Banyumas community. They believe that Banyumas ancestors were a mixture between Majapahit and Pajajaran. Raden Baribin, one of Brawijaya IV's younger siblings, was married to one of Pajajaran's daughters. Both are then blessed with a descendant named Raden Joko Kahiman who became Duke of Banyumas first titled Duke of the Main Citizens II (Duke of Mrapat). Such facts illustrate how even from the historical side can be seen the strong mix of Java-Sunda in the realm of Banyumas culture.

In social life, the people of Banyumas are very familiar with folklore which is strongly influenced by the beliefs of animism-the dynamism and development of abangan Islam. The belief in superstition, the supernatural powers surrounding human life and belief in divinity illustrate the mixing of the animism-dinamic belief system with the teachings of Abangan Islam. Concrete examples can be found in traditional mantras. A person walking exactly at midday in places deemed haunted (inhabited by supernatural beings) will utter a traditional-Islami mantra "Millah bedhug" or say "Bismillah, kyaine, putune ajeng liwat". In the world of childhood is also often found this kind of mantra.

The model of these spells is done for serious and playful things. Speech, "Millah bedhug" or "Bismillah, Kyaine, his late son" is an example of something that is considered serious. This local community believes that in certain places is inhabited by a delicate spirit, whether good or evil. Their prudence is shown through these kind of spell phrases. In the context of play, the spell pronounced by the dragon-catching children illustrates how deeply they are in belief or suggestion, that by speaking the spell then dragonflies will be benign. On the other hand, in order for the dragonfly to be tame, the spell is countered with another spell, rolling, rolling, throwing your thief (pushing, pushing, behind your thief).

In the context of art, the local genius of the Banyumas community has produced a wide variety of traditional artistic breathing breaths such as lengger, bongkel, jemblung, calung, angklung and others. This variety of art is built from people's culture. They have a different standard of aesthetics with the various art forms of kraton imbued with the grand concept. The artistry in the context of Banyumas culture is a means of expressing the totality of the experience of the community living in rural communities, far from the royal hegemony, traditional-agrarian cultures and social sensitivities that reflect the movements of their daily lives.

On the other hand, the life of Banyumas culture is strongly influenced by oral tradition. As areas that are relatively left behind in cultural developments in the past, writing cultures in this region are relatively slower than the royal centers. Scan of all these has sparked oral tradition as one of the most important part of their lives. People in this area have the techniques to remember the important events in Banyumas society. An illiterate citizen in Banyumas can tell clearly about Banyumas history, Pasirluhur babad or Banyumas Flood events. Likewise, people in this area have a way of remembering the day, the market and the date of the year in the year only with a finger count.

Banyumas culture is also influenced by Western culture (colonial) as reflected in the various traditions of society. Marungan tradition in the form of customs of the priyayi in rural areas to do (bersukaria) by drinking (drinking) while playing cards and watching the folk dance performances lengger, allegedly the influence of Dutch colonialism that so long controlled Indonesia. Performing a pethilan (piece) performance of the play is believed to be derived from the term toneel in a Dutch vocabulary. Similarly, the costumes worn on the art of dhames and nods are also the influence of the costumes worn by Dutch colonial soldiers. On the other hand, colonial influence is also found in building models.

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